The idea of literate programming is to combine program code with explanation in a natural language, so that the entire source code can be read as an explanation of how the program is constructed and what it does. Literate programming is useful in a wide range of areas:
you can write literate scripts to document how a library works
you can use it to explain the logic behind complex calculations or mathematical models
you can use it to write data analysis that is executable and produces the final report
and as a bonus, you can use it to generate slides for your programming talks!
Tomas is a computer scientist and open-source developer. He is a Visiting Researcher at the Alan Turing Institute working on tools for open data-driven storytelling. He wrote a popular book called "Real-World Functional Programming" and is a lead developer of several F# open-source libraries.